Amerykańscy naukowcy badają sposób, w jaki mózg rozpoznaje twarze

Na pozór banalną czynnością jest rozpoznanie czy twarz przyjaciela jest radosna lub smutna, czy nawet jej dostrzeżenie, kiedy nie widzimy jej przez długi czas. Zagadnieniem jednak pozostaje mechanizm, według którego działa mózg, kiedy rozpoznaje znajome twarze z tak dużą łatwością i efektywnością, pomimo ich szerokiej zmienności.

Badacze z Carnegie Mellon University są bliżej niż kiedykolwiek zrozumienia neuronalnej podstawy identyfikacji twarzy. W badaniu opublikowanym 26 grudnia 2016 w „Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences”, wykorzystali oni bardzo zaawansowane narzędzia obrazowania mózgu i metod obliczeniowych do pomiaru procesów mózgowych w czasie rzeczywistym, które odpowiadają za przekształcenie wyglądu twarzy do aktu rozpoznania danej osoby. Zespół badawczy ma nadzieję, że wyniki zostaną wykorzystane w najbliższej przyszłości, aby zlokalizować dokładne miejsce, w którym wizualny system postrzegania załamuje się, czego konsekwencją są schorzenia i urazy typu dysleksja rozwojowa, prozopagnozja czy ślepota twarzy.

„Nasze wyniki stanowią krok w kierunku zrozumienia etapu przetwarzania informacji, który zaczyna się, gdy obraz twarzy po raz pierwszy wkracza w pole widzenia oka danej osoby i przetwarzany jest w ciągu najbliższych kilkuset milisekund, dopóki dana osoba nie jest w stanie w pełni rozpoznać tożsamość twarzy”, twierdzi Mark D. Vida, pracownik naukowy w Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences’ Department of Psychology and Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition (CNBC).

Aby ustalić, w jaki sposób mózg szybko rozróżnia twarze, naukowcy skanowali mózgi czterech osób korzystających magnetoencefalografii (MEG). MEG pozwoliło mierzyć im bieżącą aktywność mózgu w mózgu w milisekundach, podczas gdy uczestnicy oglądali obrazy z 91 różnymi osobami, każdą w dwóch stanach mimicznych: szczęśliwym i obojętnym. Pozwoliło to obserwować rozpoznawanie twarzy tej samej osoby, kiedy jej obraz był powtarzany, bez względu na ekspresję.

Skany MEG pozwoliły naukowcom nakreślić, które części mózgu kodowały informacje dotyczące wyglądu, a które informacje zadecydowały o rozpoznaniu tożsamości. Zespół porównał również dane neuronowe z podjętymi ocenami obrazów twarzy, osądów opierających się głównie na informacjach tożsamościowych. Następnie wyniki były potwierdzone przez porównanie danych neuronowych z informacjami zawartymi w różnych częściach symulacji komputerowej sztucznej sieci neuronowej, która była dostosowana do rozpoznawania osób o tych samych twarzach.



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